Volume 5 Issue 3(October 2023)

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An Examination of Women Thinkers who have Contributed Sociologically, Psychologically or Philosophically to Educational Programs from a Feminist Perspective

Hilal Altıntaş Zeynep Demirtaş Ömer Faruk Vural
Pages: 129-138

This study is a research conducted by using the document analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods, in order to examine women thinkers who have contributed to curriculum studies in sociological, psychological, or philosophical terms by revealing the place of women in education throughout history. Although there are many scientists who have contributed to the field of educational programs, nine women who are considered to have contributed the most are included in the research. These women are Hypatia, Mary Wollstonecraft, Jane Addams, Maria Montessori, Melanie Klein, Hilda Taba, Nel Noddings, Jane Roland Martin, and Fatma Varış from Turkey. As a result of the research, the following results emerged. Although there are women who have contributed to education programs, their number is not very high in the history of education. This is due to the fact that women's rights to education were taken away from them or that women's actions and thoughts are considered insignificant in historiography. It is also a fact that their work is often overshadowed. Nevertheless, the research shows that these women scientists have carried out important studies in many fields such as learning processes, curriculum development, and teaching methods. Hypatia's experimental-based understanding of education pioneered the creation of content. Mary Wollstonecraft's views on the importance of individual development and physical activities in education were included in the programs. Addams' experimental studies, the idea that these experiments should go from concrete to abstract and students should establish activities with each other have been guiding the development of educational programs. The Montessori method continues to be applied in many schools. Her ideas contribute to the determination of materials in the preparation of programs. Klein's developmental stages have guided the design of parent programs and the content of the programs. Taba's curriculum development model, which adopts an inductive approach and consists of eight stages, is still used in curriculum development studies today. Noddings' views were utilized in determining the aims of education and paved the way for raising more democratic and tolerant individuals. Martin's ideas have been useful in making education programs emphasize the equality of women and men in education. While Varış's curriculum stages and her emphasis on this subject are still used in curriculum development studies today, she has also been a pioneer with his egalitarian and secular views.

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Investigating the Relationship Between Turkish Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Towards E-Learning, E-Learning Readiness, Digital Literacy Levels and Academic Achievement in Distance Education Process

Gürbüz Çalışkan
Pages: 139-152

This study aims to examine the relationship between Turkish teacher candidates' attitudes towards e-learning, e-learning readiness, digital literacy, and their academic achievement in distance education process. The study was conducted using a survey model. The study group consists of 271 teacher candidates studying at the Department of Turkish Language Teaching in the 2021-2022 academic year. The study used e-learning readiness scale, attitude towards e-learning scale and digital literacy scale as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it was found that Turkish teacher candidates' attitudes towards e-learning and digital literacy levels were moderate, while their e-learning readiness were high. No significant relationship was found between Turkish teacher candidates' attitude towards e-learning and their academic achievement, and no significant relationship was found between attitude towards e-learning and digital literacy. There was a significant negative relationship between attitude towards e-learning and e-learning readiness. It was revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between digital literacy and academic achievement and between readiness and attitude towards e-learning. There was also a positive relationship between readiness for e-learning and digital literacy. Academic achievement of Turkish teacher candidates was significantly predicted by readiness for e-learning; however, academic achievement was not significantly predicted by attitude towards e-learning and e-learning readiness

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The Evaluation of the 4th Grade English Coursebook in Terms of Teachers’ Views*

Kader Yağızel Şehnaz Nigar Çelik
Pages: 153-167

The role of teaching materials in English language teaching classes is relatively high. Among the teaching materials, the importance of textbooks cannot be denied. Textbooks play a fundamental role in a wide variety of materials. Despite different views about textbooks and differences of opinion about their use (Cunningsworth, 2005; Harmer, 2007; Meddings & Thornbury, 2009; Richards, 2014, 2009; Tomlinson, 2012), they are still used by most teachers. This study aims to evaluate the 4th grade English textbook in line with teachers' opinions. In this study, a mixed research method was used. The study was conducted with 115 English teachers working in Edremit, Tuşba, and İpekyolu, the central districts of Van province, in the academic year 2021-2022. "Textbook Evaluation Questionnaire" and "Semi-structured Interview Form" were used to collect data. Within the scope of the research, 12 English teachers were also interviewed. The teachers who participated in the study think that the visuals used in the book, the general appearance of their book, and the font size are reasonable. Most teachers think the book's content is appropriate for learning outcomes and teaching principles. It was determined that the teachers agreed with the items related to the exercises and activities of the book at a moderate level. Teachers think that exercises and activities should motivate students, and the exercises used in the book should be diversified. Textbooks are one of the most essential materials in the teaching process, and the process of preparing a textbook should be done by considering the curriculum, learning outcomes, and student and teacher needs. In addition to the exercises and activities used in the content of the book, the formal features of the book should also be given importance. The exercises and activities used in the textbooks prepared for young age groups should encourage students to learn and entertain them simultaneously.

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The Effect of School Principals' Agile Leadership Behaviors on Entrepreneurial Teacher Behaviors through Innovative Organizations

Fatih Baydar
Pages: 168-181

This study aims to reveal the mediating role of innovative organizations in the effect of school administrators’ agile leadership behaviors on entrepreneurial teacher behaviors. Based on the relationship between the variables, a model was proposed and tested. Before testing the structural equation modeling (SEM) model, the relational survey model was used to determine the relationship between the variables and the model. The study group consists of 479 teachers working in the Kartal, Tuzla, Maltepe, and Sultanbeyli districts of Istanbul in 2023. According to the research findings, the agile leadership characteristics of school principals positively affect the entrepreneurial behaviors of teachers and the innovative structure of schools. As a result of the analysis of the SEM model, innovative organizations play a partial mediating role between agile leadership behaviors of school principals and entrepreneurial teacher behaviors. This research contributes both theoretically and practically to the effect of agile leadership on teachers’ entrepreneurial behaviors and innovative organizational structures, and the effect of innovative organizations on entrepreneurial teacher behaviors. In light of the findings, implications related to agile leadership, teachers ’ entrepreneurial behaviors, and innovative organizational structures are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research

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The Relationship between Self-Control and General Procrastination in University Students: The Mediating Role of Optimism

Çağla Karademir
Pages: 182-197

Self-control, which is relevant to abandoning from the sudden impulses for a significant objective, the tendency of optimism meaning that good things will happen in the future, and the tendency to procrastination briefly defined as the gap between intention and action are significant variables having effects on the well-being of the individuals. In the related literature, no study was found addressing these three variables together. In this direction, the study intended to examine the mediating role of optimism in the relationship between self-control and general procrastination in the university students. The research is based on relational survey model. 327 university students having their study in the faculty of education of a state university in Turkey formed the sample of the research. The data of the research was collected by the use of brief self-control scale, general procrastination scale, optimism and pessimism scale, and adult form. SPSS 21 was used for descriptive data and Pearson correlation analysis, AMOS 23 was used for confirmatory factor analysis, and Process Macro 4.1 software (model 4) was used for the analysis of predicting and mediating relationships. In the research, it was determined that the significant relationships between self-control and general procrastination were in negative direction; that is to say, the ones between self-control and optimism were in positive direction, and the ones between optimism and general procrastination were in negative direction. Moreover, partial mediating effect of optimism was determined in the relationship between self-control and general procrastination. Self-control has significant indirect effect on general procrastination through optimism, and optimism mediates this relationship

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Relationship between Factors Directing Interpersonal Interaction: Mediation Role of Anxiety Sensitivity

Lokman KOÇAK Eyüp ÇELİK Hasan BATMAZ Beyza Nur TUFAN Samet MAKAS
Pages: 198-210

The objective of this study was to determine the mediation role of anxiety sensitivity in the relationship between interpersonal competence and phubbing. The study was an observational cross-sectional study based on a survey with the aim of determining the mediation role of anxiety sensitivity in the relationship between interpersonal competence and phubbing. In this context, data were collected from a convenience sample of 321 participants using the Phubbing Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, and Interpersonal Competence Scale (ICC)-Short Form. Data were analyzed using regression-based mediation analysis and Pearson ’s correlation coefficient. The analysis demonstrated that phubbing was positively related to anxiety sensitivity and negatively related to interpersonal competence. Furthermore, the mediation analysis showed that anxiety sensitivity had a mediating effect on the relationship between interpersonal competence and phubbing. Furthermore, the bootstrap (10000) method was used to determine whether the mediation analysis was significant. These findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity partly explains the inverse relationship between interpersonal competence and phubbing. The research results support previous research results and have different findings from previous research. The findings of this research indicate that anxiety sensitivity is more effective than interpersonal competence in phubbing

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Examination of Mathematics Teachers’ Orchestration Types Specific to Their Dynamic Geometry Software-Based Emergency Remote Teaching

Mustafa Değerli Candaş Uygan
Pages: 211-231

The aim of this study is to examine secondary school mathematics teachers’ orchestration types specific to their dynamic geometry software-based emergency remote teaching. The theoretical lens of the study is instrumental orchestration in which teachers’ teaching styles with the use of technological tools are defined as orchestration types. The study was designed as a case study whose participants were two secondary school mathematics teachers (Faruk and Ela) experienced in the use of dynamic geometry software in their face-to-face teaching processes. Semi-structured interviews and observations were performed in order to collect the data in the study. The collected data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis method. The results of the study reveal that the teachers developed two new orchestration types during the emergency remote teaching process While Faruk developed the Teacher-in-sherpa-role orchestration in which the teacher performed the operations asked by the students; both teachers performed the Screen-as-board in which they used virtual pen to draw auxiliary lines, place marks and take notes on the screen. In addition, Ela adapted the Monitor-and-guide orchestration into her teaching process, in which a student-monitoring system regarding dynamic geometry activities played an essential role. The results show that various orchestration types identified in the literature do not occur in the remote teaching processes due to their characteristics regarding the physical classroom environment. It is suggested that further studies focus to examine the orchestration types developed by mathematics teachers in the post-pandemic remote teaching processes.

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Effect of Cognitive Apprenticeship-Enriched Argument-Driven Inquiry Method on Pre-Service Teachers' Academic Achievement and Scientific Research Skills

Sevinç Kaçar
Pages: 232-253

This study aimed to determine the effect of a cognitive apprenticeship-enriched argument-driven inquiry method on pre-service primary teachers’ academic achievement and scientific research skills regarding environmental issues/problems. The study was conducted with 24 first-grade pre-service primary teachers from the Primary Teacher Department of a private university in Northern Cyprus. The study was conducted using a mixed-methods research design. The data collection tool used in this research is an academic achievement test, an open-ended question form for transferring knowledge to daily life, and students’ videos/photos, reflective diary protocol, scientific research proposal-article-poster, and Moodle discussion contents. The research found that pre-service teachers’ academic achievement and scientific research skills improved. According to this result, cognitive apprenticeship-enriched argument-driven inquiry improved pre-service teachers ’ academic achievement related to the Environmental Education Course and their scientific research skills related to environmental topics and concepts

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Teacher Opinions on the Process of Preparing, Implementing, and Evaluation of an Individualized Education Program for Primary School Mathematics Courses

Tunahan Filiz
Pages: 254-269

Eliminating the problems experienced in the process of IEP preparation, implementation, and evaluation in the mathematics course can ensure that students benefit from IEP activities in a way that they do not fall behind their peers. This study aims to explore the views of classroom teachers who have inclusive students in their classrooms on individualised education programme preparation, implementation, and evaluation in mathematics lessons. The research was designed using the phenomenology method, a qualitative research method. The participant group of the study consisted of 22 classroom teachers with inclusive students. The research data were collected face-to-face during the second semester of the 2022–2023 academic year through a semi-structured interview form. In addition, observation and document review methods were used to support the data obtained from the interviews. The content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Because of the content analysis, the data were organized and interpreted under the themes of individualised education programme preparation, implementation, and evaluation in mathematics lessons. Because of the research, it was determined that classroom teachers could not find appropriate and sufficient materials and could not get expert support in the process of Individualized Education Program implementation in mathematics courses. In addition, it was found that classroom teachers were inadequate in monitoring and evaluating the Individualized Education Program in mathematics and used non-standard measurement and evaluation tools. Experimental studies are needed to assess whether or not the Individualized Education Program preparation, implementation, and evaluation process improves students’ achievement in mathematics.

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Developing a Scale to Measure Parents’ Reward and Praise Behaviors for Parental Involvement

Özgür Bolat
Pages: 270-280

Parental involvement in the educational process is crucial for creating an effective learning environment because parents' attitudes directly influence the child's behavior in classrooms. Two important parental behaviors that impact a child's behavior are rewards and praise. While rewards and praise are viewed positively by the behaviorist approach, they are generally perceived negatively by Self-Determination Theory. It is vital for school leaders, researchers, and teachers to explore parents' rewards and praise behaviors, investigate their effects on students, and organize parental involvement programs based on these behaviors. However, there are no reliable and valid scales in the literature that measure parents' reward and praise behaviors. Thus, this scale-development research, conducted with a descriptive survey model, aims to develop two distinct, valid, and reliable scales to measure parents' reward and praise behaviors. According to Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis results, two separate scales have been developed. The first scale is named "Parental Reward Behavior Scale", and the second one is called "Parental Praise Behavior Scale". The Parental Reward Behavior Scale consists of two sub-dimensions. These factors are named "reward as a control tool" and "reward as a motivation tool". The Parental Praise Behavior Scale consists of a single factor. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has verified the structures of the scale. The Criticism Scale and Disrespect Scale have been used for concurrent validity. A positive relationship has been found between both scales and the developed scale. This finding indicates that reward and praise are negative parental behaviors, confirming the theories of the socio-cognitive school rather than the behavioral school. In conclusion, both the Parental Reward Behavior Scale and the Parental Praise Behavior Scale have been introduced to the literature as valid and reliable measurement tools for teachers, researchers and school leaders

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The Effects of Professional Job Satisfaction on School Leadership

Aysun Bay Dönertaş Engin Dilbaz
Pages: 281-290

In this study, it is aimed to examine the effect of job satisfaction of high school principals on school leadership. For this purpose, the data obtained through the "School Leadership Scale" and "Job Satisfaction with Profession Scale" in the "Teaching and Learning International Survey -TALIS- data set published by OECD were used. The sample of the study consists of 448 high school principals randomly selected by TALIS through two-stage stratified sampling method to represent the international population. The test of variability between the perceptions of principals according to the personal variables of the research was tested by causal comparison model; whether there is a relationship between principals' professional job satisfaction and school leadership was tested by correlation model; the predictive power of high school principals' professional job satisfaction on school leadership was tested by multiple regression model. As a result of the research, it was revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between high school principals' professional job satisfaction and school leadership, and as principals' perceptions of professional job satisfaction increase, school leadership behaviour levels increase. For practitioners, it is suggested that renumeration, benefits and workplace conditions job satisfaction elements be put into practice and structural arrangements be made in this direction in order to ensure the professional job satisfaction of school leaders.

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Emotion-Focused Communication Training on the Assertiveness Levels of Counselor Candidates: A Mixed Design Study

Bahar Mete Otlu
Pages: 291-303

In this study, the effect of Emotion-Focused Communication Training (EFCT) developed by the researcher was examined on the assertiveness levels of counselor candidates. The study has a mixed design because it includes both quantitative and qualitative dimensions. In the quantitative dimension of the study, a quasi-experimental design with a pretest–posttest control group was used. The experimental group of the study consisted of 12 (7 female, 5 male) counselor candidates studying at Dokuz Eylül University, Buca Faculty of Education, Psychological Counseling and Guidance undergraduate program; the control group consisted of 12 (8 female, 4 male) counselor candidates studying in the same department and not included in the experimental group. The Voltan Acar Assertiveness Scale was used to measure the assertiveness levels of counselor candidates. In addition, a semi-structured interview form prepared by the researcher was used to identify views of the counselor candidates on the training. The quantitative data of the study were analyzed using the SPSS program. The Shapiro–Wilks test was applied to determine whether the data had a normal distribution, and the t-test was used in intergroup comparisons after it was understood that the data were suitable for parametric test conditions. The qualitative data of the study were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Because of the study, it was found that EFCT led to a significant increase in the levels of assertiveness of counselor candidates. In the study, the counselor candidates’ opinions about the effects of the EFCT were that the training contributed positively to their communication skills, awareness of communication, and assertiveness levels

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Investigating the Mediating Role of Problematic Internet Use in the Relationship between the Coping Humor and Subjective Vitality of University Students

Muhammet Fatih Yılmaz
Pages: 304-313

Subjective vitality is a concept related to the mental health of individuals. Subjective vitality is an important concept for university students. In this context, this study presents a model to explain the subjective vitality of university students. This research investigates the mediating role of problematic internet use in the relationship between coping humor and the subjective vitality of university students. A total of 378 university students (243 females and 135 males, Agemean = 20.27 ± 1.78) participated in the study and completed the Subjective Vitality Scale, Coping Humor Scale, Young Internet Addiction Scale - Short Form, and Personal Information Form. Structural equation modelling was used for data analysis. According to Structural Equation Modeling, coping humor predicts subjective vitality through partial mediation of problematic internet use. The findings suggest that coping humour reduces university students’ problematic internet use and thus increases their subjective vitality. In addition, coping humour contributes positively to university students’ subjective vitality. In the Discussion and Conclusion section, explanations related to the research findings, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided

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Students’ Opinions on Distance Education: The Pandemic and Before

Zeliha Demir-Kaymak Şule Kılınç
Pages: 314-327

In this study, it was aimed to examine the opinions of university students regarding distance education before and during the pandemic. This research was designed as a qualitative case study. The participants in the research included 64 students, 37 of whom were enrolled before the pandemic, and 27 during the pandemic period. They were all students at the Faculty of Education of a state university in Turkey and were enrolled in the "Open and Distance Learning" course during the fall and spring semesters of the 2019-2020 academic year. To collect data for this study, researchers used a form consisting of open-ended questions. The study found that university students experienced a greater lack of a social environment during the pandemic period. They also encountered more technical problems and faced shortages of digital tools compared to the pre-pandemic period. Furthermore, unlike the previous period, university students reported that they had less personal time, experienced issues with measurement and evaluation, had prolonged screen time, experienced unplanned distance education, lacked active participation, did not receive immediate feedback, and had difficulty managing their studies. As a result of the research, it was determined that there were more positive opinions about distance education before the pandemic and more negative opinions during the pandemic period. Additionally, this study highlights the differences between distance education and emergency remote teaching

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Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes Towards Virtual Classroom Environment

Filiz Çetin
Pages: 328-337

This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards the virtual classroom environment. The research data were collected from a total of 355 students, 294 females, and 61 males, studying at different grade levels in the fall semester of the 2022-2023 academic year in four different teaching programs randomly selected from the teaching programs within the Faculty of Education of a state university with the "Scale for Determining Attitudes Towards Virtual Classroom Environment" developed by Çetin and Demirkan (2023). The survey model was used in the study, and the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards the virtual classroom environment were described as they are. The collected data were first subjected to normality tests in the context of variables, and after the normality of the distribution was concluded as a result of the analyses, T-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were used for independent groups. In addition, effect size values were calculated to determine to what extent the independent variables used in the research questions have an effect on attitudes towards the virtual classroom environment. As a result of the research, it was observed that pre-service teachers' attitude scores towards the virtual classroom environment were concentrated in the "undecided" option, and this attitude structure was preserved according to different independent variables, and differences occurred within itself according to some variables.

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Adaptation and Validation of Career Influence Inventory in Turkish Context

Tansu Mutlu Çaykuş
Pages: 338-357

This study aimed to adapt the Career Influence Inventory to Turkish and examine its psychometric properties. It is a 4-point Likert-type scale consisting of 35 items and six subscales (Teachers’ Influence, Negative Social Events, Parents’ Influence, High School Academic Experiences and Self-Efficacy, Ethnic-Gender Expectations, and Friends’ Influence). The participants of this study were 386 university students (205 female, and 181 male) studying at different faculties of a state university in Turkey. The confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the Turkish version of the Career Influence Inventory comprises six subscales, as does the original scale (χ² (542)=1217.45, p=.00; χ²/df-ratio=2.25; CFI=.96, NNFI=95; SRMR=.061; RMSEA=.057). The internal consistency coefficient of the entire scale was found to be .86. The internal consistency coefficients of the subscales Teachers’ Influence, Negative Social Events, Parents’ Influence, High School Academic Experiences and Self-Efficacy, Ethnic-Gender Expectations, and Friends’ Influence were .90, .85, .85, .78, .83, and .75, respectively. As a result, the obtained findings indicate that the Turkish version of the Career Influence Inventory is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to determine the influential factors on career development and planning of university students.

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A Phenomenological Study on Student Selection for Departments of Primary Education and Appointment of Primary School Teachers in Türkiye

Ömer Faruk Abide
Pages: 358-375

The primary purpose of this study is to identify the opinions of faculty members, who are experts in their fields, on student selection for teacher training institutions for primary education and on the problem of non-appointed primary school teachers in Türkiye. The study is based on phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research methods. The study sample consists of thirty faculty members selected using the criterion sampling technique from twenty-nine faculties of education including the department of primary education. The data in the study were collected using a semi-structured interview form and analysed through the content analysis method. As a result of the analyses, five themes were created regarding the opinions of the faculty members on student selection for teacher training institutions for primary education. In this context, various codes were listed under the themes of “student selection procedures”, “student characteristics”, “quotas”, “source of students” and “incentives”. Considering the field experts’ opinions on non-appointed primary school teachers, three themes were identified, and various codes were listed under the themes of “employment opportunities”, “quantity” and “appointment procedures”. The findings revealed that the main policies considered necessary by the faculty members in selecting students for primary school teacher training institutions included planning the student resources starting from secondary education and selecting eligible individuals through objective interviews, in addition to central examination. It was also concluded that the main policies to be pursued in solving the problem of non-appointed primary school teachers included making a needs-based arrangement in quotas in faculties of education and ensuring a sufficient number of graduates, as well as improving retirement conditions and conducting merit-based appointments for vacancies arising from retirements by excluding out-of-field teachers.

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Investigation of Laboratory Teaching Strategies in Chemistry Education: Opinions of Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

Funda Ekici Ayse Yalcin-Celik
Pages: 376-389

This study aims to determine the opinions of pre-service chemistry teachers on the applicability of laboratory strategies, the purposes of their use, and the factors influencing strategy preference. The research was conducted through a phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research styles. The study includes 20 pre-service chemistry teachers enrolled at a state university in Ankara. A written questionnaire comprising three queries exploring the suitability of laboratory approaches, their objectives, and the determinants influencing the selection of approaches was employed for data collection. The opinions of the pre-service chemistry teachers were collected with the data collection tool 5 times during the implementation. The data was analyzed by content and descriptive analysis of the written responses. According to the research findings, 98.7% of the pre-service teachers believe the strategies are applicable or partially applicable. The lack of materials, crowded classrooms, unsuitable laboratories, and student level, as well as difficulties in classroom management, time limitations, safety issues, problems in achieving learning outcomes, and students' unfamiliarity with laboratory strategies, were cited by pre-service teachers as factors affecting the practical use of laboratories. Additionally, pre-service teachers applied laboratory strategies for learning, learning about science, learning about research, and skill development. Meanwhile, the other result of the study was that the factors for pre-service teachers to prefer laboratory strategies vary according to the acquisition, learning environment, learning outcomes, students, and chemistry topics. The study's findings again highlight the importance of exploring pre-service teachers' opinions about teaching in the laboratory.

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